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Western Philosophy An Introduction

The essence of Western philosophy has been reviewed in order to identify the characteristics that can be identified in human experience and philosophi

An abbreviated form of Western philosophy

The breakdown of the sensory sympathy of the people of the world seems to be of the same kind. Although the habit of nurturing the senses is different, the basic materials required for the formation of ideas seem to be the same. The essence of Western philosophy has been reviewed in order to identify the characteristics that can be identified in human experience and philosophical thinking.


In the East, sage Kapil wrote 'Sankhyasutra' (around 700 BC) and said that nature is the cause of the creation of the world, but in the West, philosopher Thales (624-550 BC) said that the creation of the world is a part of nature from water (Christ, 2014: 20). ). He was the first to introduce the "mathematical system" and mentioned that water is the basic element of the world. Life is obtained from water. Life without water cannot be imagined. He is of the opinion that the living things of the world contain some part of life (Nigam, 2000: 9). Thales's idea of ​​considering water as the basis of creation seems to be similar to the theory of astrology and numerology of the past.

There are two main denominations in ancient Greece, the first being Milesian and the second being Elijah. Thales is the founder of the Malaysian school of thought, and his supporters and commentators are Aneximander (611-547 BC) and Aneximenis (588-424 BC). Aneximander adds that "water" is not the only root cause of the world, but also earth, fire and air (Sharma, 2009: 2). He believes in the divine essence, pointing out that there is another ultimate element besides the four mentioned elements. His belief in creation and the ultimate element seems to be similar to that of Mahabhuta and Purusha, one of the five physical objects of Sankhya. Considering air to be paramatman, Aneximenes has expressed the idea that air itself can be transformed into fire and that the same liquid can be used to form water and after water freezes it can be transformed into earth. According to these two scholars, nature is the creator of the world and God is its regulator. This idea of ​​creation seems to be close to the previous yoga philosophy. Another philosopher, Pythagoras (580–500 BC), introduced the scientific method of studying geometry and mathematics. Pythagoras, who believes in reincarnation because of his religious beliefs, says that it is the duty of human beings to get rid of the world and attain salvation. He called the body a prison of the soul and acknowledged that salvation is possible through meditation. Which seems to be in the category of theistic philosophy.

Permanides (514 BC), Xenophanes (570–480 BC) and Gino (489–430 BC) are theistic philosophers. All these partisans of the Elijah doctrine have acknowledged the power of the ungodly God. The Permanentes have accepted the 'Truth' as ​​true. He has accepted 'pure truth' and 'pure mind'. Pure beings are considered to be eternal and indestructible, but they seem to be convinced that 'pure truth' is divine power. He was followed by Xenophanes, a philosopher who believed that God was formless and introverted. Contradicting the human imaginary God, he has expressed the idea that God has the power to dwell in all beings and rule the world. Gino discusses the law of motion, saying that truth is unique. Their basic tendency is to believe in a unique divine power.

Heraclitus (535–475 BC) was a theistic philosopher who, in the law of relativity, expressed ideas similar to those of the Eastern Sankhya philosophy. He is a thinker who considers fire to be the ultimate element, considers the things of the world to be changeable and relates everything to relative (Sharma, 2009: 6). Cables are thought to differ in size, shape, and result. His idea seems to be comparable to that of the earlier philosophical Kanad. Democrats (460–360 BC) emphasize that happiness is more a state of happiness than a state of happiness (Christ, 2014: 39). The modern philosopher Socrates (470-399 BC) is an idealist thinker. Socrates considers God to be the supreme authority and the body to be the bond of the soul. The soul is immortal, for a virtuous person there is joy in the hereafter. 'Knowledge' means religion or virtue. The main purpose of Socrates' philosophy that knowledge of Shiva is religion is the destruction of human ignorance and self-realization. The founder of the Sophist sect, Protagoras (480–410 BC), introduced human-centered philosophy. He first and foremost said that the standard of every thing in the world is human, that what is seen is true, what is not seen is untrue, and has given prominence to the centrality of human beings in philosophy. It is a characteristic of modern philosophers to express faith in the divine power in various ways.

The Greek philosopher Plato (428–347 BC) is considered a systematic exponent of Western philosophy. He has explained the doctrine of knowledge through 'method' and 'prohibition' by taking the best ideas of his earlier philosophers (Nigam, 2000:10). Plato states that 'knowledge' and 'the subject of knowledge' are eternal and ineffective, that God is the creator of matter perceived by the senses, that the soul is immortal and divine, and that the soul is 'eternal science', and that science is 'pure form'. 2009: 28-29). This idea of ​​Plato seems to have a very theological character. He said that ‘science’ and ‘truth’ are also like ‘Shiva element’, not actually ‘Shivatva’, ‘Shivatva’ is many times more respectable than ‘science’ and ‘truth’.

Yes. ‘Satyam Shivam Sundaram’ cannot be compared to ‘Shivatva’ (Choubey, 1988: 30). The subject is said to be the aim of the philosophy of renunciation of happiness and attainment of spiritual happiness. On this basis, the essence of his thinking is to imagine a welfare human life and to stand on the foundation of divine faith.

Aristotle (384–322 BC) was a philosopher and political thinker. He propounded the theory of elemental theory and introduced the theory of 'relative causality' for the realization of 'matter'. According to him, there are four reasons called material, purpose, form and goal (Sankrityayan, 2015: 19). Aristotle said that these four reasons are not essential for the construction of every work. He considers 'person' or 'special' to be real matter. He sees that everything in the world is changing. Since change cannot take place in a vacuum, they believe that there must be another basis for it. They consider the world as a means and God as possible. They conclude that the ultimate goal of man is to attain God. His law of change, which seems to be similar to the change of numbers, has accepted the power of both movable and immovable matter in the world.

Ancient philosophers have expressed their desire for human welfare by searching for ways to destroy God, matter, truth, falsehood, knowledge and ignorance. As the philosophers of this period seem to revolve around God and nature, wonder and deism are the main tendencies of this period. The philosophical theism of this age, which explains matter and consciousness in the centrality of religion, is based on.


The Middle Ages have moved forward with religion and faith in the forefront. The Scriptures seem to have been interpreted philosophically during this time, also known as the "classical period." St. Augustine's (354–430) epistemology, John Scotus Erigena's (810–877) descriptions of the creation of nature and the description of God's virtues and non-virtues are the main philosophical ideas of the time (Nigam, 2000: 10). In the Middle Ages, known as the Dark Ages of Art, Literature, Progress, Development, and Thought, Arigena emerged as a thinker who broke the long silence. His main principles are 'Advaita Scientism' and 'Eternity of the World'. This world is within the 'complete science' before it can be seen. Arigena believes that the world emerges from there, and in the end, when the world is destroyed, it disappears again where it came from (Choubey, 1988: 49). His 'complete science' seems to be similar to the 'Alay Vigyan' of the Eastern region's Buddhist thought 'Yogachar' (scientificism) branch. Oregon is a theologian who believes that religion and philosophy are complementary.

St. Augustine is a philosopher who interrelates religion and philosophy. He has rejected the centrality of the world and has emphasized on the centrality of the soul. The soul is characterized by immortality, self-perfection, knowledge, and freedom. Augustine believes that the only way to escape from sin and suffering is through God's mercy (Sharma, 2009: 56). Another thinker, St. Anselm (1035-1109), advocating for God and religion, said that God is the sovereign element of the existing universe and that special qualities are all created by God. God is eternal and unchangeable. God is said to act as a sovereign element. At the same time, St. Thomas Aquinas (1225–1274) insisted that God was pure science. He argued that the universe is rooted, that the soul is immortal, that there are three forms of God-like science, living beings and the universe, and that "authoritarian reasoning" is needed to prove that there is a God (Choubey, 1988: 53). These philosophers have introduced philosophy as a practical aspect of religion and have considered the two as complementary.

Nicholas Copernicus (1401–1461) seems to have refuted the geopolitical notion of the Sun. He argues that the center of the universe is the sun, not the earth, and that planets, including the earth, orbit the sun. His idea can be considered as a reformist idea based on theism. Similarly, Jordano Bruno (1548-1600) has tried to prove the infinity of nature by saying that God is nature. His nature and the latent nature of Sankhya seem comparable. At the same time, Leonardo da Vinci (1452–1516) invented scientific experimentalism. Galileo Galilei (1504–1642) laid down the law of relativity, stating that the earth revolves around the sun, not the ecliptic. Kepler (1571–1630) and Newton (1642–1727) invented the law of gravity and established it forever. William Harvey (1568–1657) described the circulatory system of the human body, while Francis Bacon (1561–1626) argued that "knowledge can be gained through experimentation" and that science and philosophy should be based on experience gained through experimental knowledge. (Christ, 2014: 166). The main task of these philosophers is to contribute to the identification of nature's matter by interpreting human anatomy, astronomy and geography.

Medieval philosophy seems to have been more influenced by Christianity. There have been some good attempts to express philosophical ideas in those days when churches dominated. Primarily divine existence and its authoritative evidence

Demonstrating, explaining the need for God or some other science to create, initiating efforts to keep humans at the center of philosophy, considering good and bad deeds, discussing man's ultimate speed and the ultimate happiness he can achieve, unveiling the mysteries of astronomy and geography related to nature. Attempts to do so, knowledge theology, elemental theory, and step forward in the expression of independent thought are the characteristics of medieval philosophy, while trying to escape from the circle of religion, but trying to get entangled in the trap of religion is the limit.

Modern Times

In modern times, the ‘systematic scientific method’ required for the specific study of knowledge has begun. At the same time, in opposition to the traditional religious and scholarly tradition, nature is made up of molecules of various shapes and sizes. Renने Descartes (1596–1650) gave birth to the modern age by formulating such a scientific theory (Choubey, 1988: 60). He has interpreted mind, body, soul and material matter as dual and has tried to prove the existence of 'soul' on the basis of 'doubt' method. Although his method of skepticism seems to be inconsistent with the Sankhya philosophy of the past, the method of interpreting root and consciousness as dual seems to be similar. He is not an atheist even though he has discovered a new method of analysis by introducing a systematic scientific method.

Benedicto Spanoza (1632–1677) of Holland was a researcher on cognitive and deductive theories. He says that the basic sentences used in the search for philosophical truth are wise, the idea related to God is the basic idea, philosophy is not just an intellectual exercise, practical life is real life (Shivaji, 1990: 10). He explains the foundations of thought such as matter (the only essence), quality (the ability to perceive the essence of matter), God (the absolute and eternal power of the world), eternal (self), self (self-created), etc. (Sepchulin, 1980: 52). According to him, there is unrest in human life due to excessive affection for temporary objects. If there is too much attachment to any object, then human being is saddened by the destruction of that object. His beliefs about temporary objects seem to be in line with the eternal world of Vedanta philosophy. Explaining philosophy in terms of practicality, Spinoza is a theistic philosopher who believes that human beings should be attached to the eternal consciousness.

John Locke (1632–1704) was a scholar of nature, science, and medicine. He has acknowledged that there are three elements in the world, mental element, physical element and soul element. He seems to believe that these three substances contain knowledge of God according to his ability. He says that the 'mind' is innately pure, but it is imprinted with the material world. There is no birthmark in the mind. Contact with the senses is another reason to be impressed. Human knowledge begins and ends with the senses. Locke is a scholar of psychological philosophy that the basic source of knowledge is transcendental sensibility (Sharma, 2009: 134). He has established sensory empiricism by saying that there is no knowledge in the prenatal soul but knowledge begins through the experience of the senses. If this idea of ​​his soul seems to be similar to justice, special and philosophy, then it can be compared with the earlier Vedanta that the mind must be controlled to be one with Brahman.

Gutfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1646–1716) was a German philosopher. He introduced Chidnu (matter) and said that the world would originate from it and human beings are also a part of Chidnu (Christ, 2014: 2037). Everything in the world has a part of chidnu, but human beings have a special kind of chidnu, also called 'soul', so he believes that it controls the body. He says that every object in the world has some kind of consciousness but human beings have a special kind of consciousness. George Berkeley (1685–1753) was an English theistic philosopher. He said that "matter" is a means of confirming materialist thought, that all the sensations that arise in human beings are the result of God's actions in the human mind and soul. On this basis Leibniz is a totalitarian philosopher who sees the part of consciousness in all matter, while Berkeley is a theistic thinker that God is the operator of the body.

English historian and philosopher David Hume (1711–1776) is a skeptical philosopher. According to Hume, the senses and the senses are the ultimate elements in the creation of the direct world, and in order to understand the world, one must have direct experience through the senses. . Hume adds that Locke's theory of the "effect of material on the purity of the mind" contains the imprint of "sensory culture" (Choubey, 1988: 129). In addition to the material in his mind, there is also the imprint of the rites of the senses. If the five senses and their functions are the outer covering, then the 'mind' is the inner sense, through which happiness and sorrow are experienced (Choubey, 1988: p12) He argues that the knowledge of happiness and sorrow is called self-consciousness. He also said that the existence of sensation is without a doubt. Hume has also become a theoretical source of modern sentimentalist philosophy, as he considers sensibility to be without a doubt. Hume's idea of ​​the theory of the "imprint of the mind" seems to be in line with the beliefs associated with the "culture" of Eastern philosophy.

The French philosopher Franवाois Voltaire (1678–1778) acknowledged God as the world's foremost driver, supporting mechanics and materialism. He has an inseparable relationship with divine nature. They have expressed the idea that nature runs by its own eternal law. The soul is a special quality in the living organ without any special element. God has given the matter the ability to think. It is said that the soul is the substance capable of thinking that way. According to him, the basic sources of knowledge are 'enlightenment' and 'experience'. On this basis, he is atheistic philosopher.

The critical scientific German philosopher Emmanuel Kant (1724–1804) was a dialectical thinker. He has become an intellectual at first, then an empiricist, and finally a co-ordinator. He states that the solar system was initially formed from a nebula (nbk lbdg) arising as a result of internal activity in nature (Sepchulin, 1980: 61). He has described the world in two ways, the world of objects and the world of events. The material world is completely independent and unknowable, while the event world is not independent of human consciousness. Humans can only understand the phenomenon (nature). Saying that the material world is completely unknowable and inaccessible, he has interpreted every object in the world as duality by constructing special classes such as cause and effect, necessity and coincidence, possibility and reality (Sharma, 2009: 2001). Duality or contradictions exist only in human consciousness or concept. Human consciousness cannot solve conflicting questions. These are matters of faith. People cannot understand the real form of an object. Kant's notion that God, the soul, and free will can be explained through religion is an "agnostic sentimentalist." Although this idea of ​​his is new in relation to the creation of the world, he has become a believer after moving from his idea to the theory of knowledge.

The scientific philosopher Johann Ficte (1765–1814) was a German citizen. He says that everything in the world is not beyond the mind (Sankrityayan, 2015: 2053). In the field of epistemology, he has also considered the mind or intuition as a component of logical knowledge and has accepted the mind as the source of holistic knowledge. He said that philosophy should be practical, otherwise philosophy would be considered false. The function of philosophy is to refine practicality. Philosophy can be explained by the action of the intellect. The soul is the manifestation of divine action. God is the only Supreme Being or Spirit. Knowledge of it requires 'Shraddha' (method of conduct). Fictitious states that consciousness is the only source of power or existence and that the world was created by the infinite activity of an omnipotent eternal doer (Sankrityayan, 2015: 254). This idea of ​​his also seems to revolve around the seropher of theism.

Frederick Wilhelm Joseph Schelling (1775–1854) was atheistic philosopher. His philosophy discusses nature, soul and mysticism. His nature moves in a systematic and law-abiding manner. That cannot be called unconscious. The ultimate source of nature and life is paramatman. Nature has life force and consciousness. Shelling has a strong idea of ​​how the subjective consciousness can become a subject again, saying that there is latent consciousness in what seems to be the root (Sharma, 2009: 216). The reason why living beings and the universe, conscious and unconscious, are really one is that the ultimate element is one. That ultimate element cannot be accepted by the intellect. His belief that duality is realized through experience when the time comes, seems to be close to the former Advaita Vedanta. He has advocated monotheistic theism by advancing the principle of identity between subjects.

George Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (1770–1831) is an atheistic philosopher who argues that conflict is the cause of all life and motion. He considers pure thought to be the main basis of creation. According to him, in the beginning, there is only pure contemplation or param bhav. Paramabhav is thought or consciousness. Since the Supreme Being is nirguna, it remains in a state of non-existence or powerlessness. Since paramountness is naturally contradictory, the result of the same contradiction is the emergence of a state of powerlessness into pure power. Creation begins with the conflict between non-existence and pure power (Sepchulin, 1980: 63). In the first stage self-consciousness, then ultimate consciousness and then logical classes arise. The second stage is the development of nature, the third stage is the development of thought and human consciousness. After the development of human consciousness, the ultimate feeling returns to its original state by stopping the chain of development. Knowledge begins with the senses and ends with enlightenment. Sense direct, event-driven scientific knowledge and philosophical knowledge are the main types of knowledge. Philosophical knowledge is wisdom (Shivaji, 1990: 86). He is of the opinion that enlightenment is the realization of the content of God (Sankrityayan, 2015: 255). Considering the society or the nation as the creation of the Supreme Being, the world His philosophy is to accept the result of development, to interpret the world in a dual way. He is a philosopher who takes theism to a new height.

The aspirant Sopenhauer (1788-1860) was a philosopher who said, "Thirst must be abandoned," and Frederick Nietzsche (1844–1900), a philosopher who argued that sovereignty could be maintained through craving. The dialectical materialist philosopher Karl Marx (1818-1883) was a commentator on human history, the materialist and materialist philosopher, while the English philosopher Whitehead (1861-) was a philosopher who accepted the scientific method and accepted God's sovereignty. William James (1842–1910), a professor of psychology and philosophy, is a causal philosopher (Srivastava, 1998: 132). Even after this, various modern and postmodern thought systems have been developed, but since there may be a distinct study of other contemporary Western philosophies, only a general discussion of theistic thinkers up to William James is given here.


Western philosophy can also be viewed from the relativity of Eastern philosophy. Eastern philosophy has acknowledged that the world and human life are miserable (except for Charvak). The Buddhists, Vedanta, Nyaya, Vaisheshika, Sankhya and other philosophies have pointed out the need to find the ultimate element to get rid of the misery of life and the world, but philosophers in the West have ignored such a sad view. They have also acknowledged that the world can be perceived directly. In particular, the creation of Western and Eastern theistic philosophy seems to be close to the existence of God and the existence of the sympathetic instrument (Gyanendriya Karmendriya). Basically, the philosophy of these two horizons has accepted that there are two main elements in the world, the root and the conscious, and for their realization, the five senses and the sense of action are required. They also believe that the existence of the world is inherent in material things or nature. The philosophies of both the regions have the same idea that the world is made up of material things like water, light, air, sky and earth. Despite such similarities, the order of his interpretation and presentation is of a very different nature.

The Western philosopher Aneximenis's belief in the need for divine inspiration in the creation of nature seems to be close to the philosophy of yoga, while John Scott Erigena's belief in the "complete science" seems to be in line with the Buddhist philosophy of yoga. Similarly, John Locke's belief that consciousness is obtained through the coincidence of the senses seems to be close to the philosophy of justice, specialism and philosophy. Shelling's idea that the conscious and the unconscious are basically the transformation of the same consciousness seems to be close to Advaita Vedanta philosophy. Whether or not there is a need for conscious inspiration in the matter of creation, the Western belief that creation originates from natural matter can be considered a close consideration of the nature-consequence theory of Sankhya philosophy. Western philosophies have shed light on the moral force by emphasizing materialism, spirituality, theory, methodology, scientificity, intellectualism, centrality of thought, and logic, and the ideas of the spiritualist philosophers Pythagoras, Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, Platinus, etc. Observing this, it is seen that the beginning of western thought is from theism. It has been found to develop only after atheism or materialism (in contemporary times).

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